empire watch, latest, Latin America, USA
Comments 37

US Policymakers Openly Plot Against Venezuela

by Tony Cartalucci, via Land Destroyer Report

The US media has been paying increasing attention to the unfolding crisis in the South American nation of Venezuela. As the US media has done elsewhere, it is attempting to portray the unfolding crisis as a result of a corrupt dictatorship fighting against a “pro-democracy” opposition.

In reality, it is simply a repeat of US-driven regime change aimed at toppling Venezuela’s independent state institutions and replacing them with institutions created by and for US special interests.

The “opposition” is comprised of US-backed political parties and US-funded fronts posing as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) many of which are listed on the US State Department’s National Endowment for Democracy (NED) website.

The UK Independent in a 2016 article titled, “Venezuela accuses US of plotting coup as Washington warns of ‘imminent collapse’,” would even admit:

…observers of the region point out that the US has a long history of seeking to interfere in the politics of Venezuela, as well as elsewhere in Latin America. In addition to supporting those who ousted Mr Chavez in 2002, the US poured hundreds of thousands of dollars to his opponents via the so-called National Endowment for Democracy.

To understand America’s actual role amid Venezuela’s unfolding crisis, one must read policy papers produced by organizations called “think tanks” which devise and promote US policy.

The Brookings Institute is a Fortune 500-funded policy think-tank. It is populated by policymakers who represent the collective ambitions of some of the world’s most powerful corporate-financier interests including big-oil, defense, agricultural monopolies, pharmaceutical corporations, media interests, and more.

Image: Just some of the Brookings Institute’s corporate-financier sponsors.

Brookings and think-tanks similar to it have regularly produced policy and media guidelines later disseminated across the Western media and Western legislatures through public relations firms and lobbyists. Think tanks are where the real agenda of the West is agreed upon and promoted from.

A recent piece featured upon the Brookings Institution’s website titled, “Venezuela: A path out of crisis,” lays out a 5-point plan toward escalating Venezuela’s already precarious situation (emphasis added):

1. The United States could expand its assistance to countries that until now have been dependent on Venezuelan oil, as a means to decrease regional support for and dependence on the Maduro government.

2. The United States could increase monetary assistance to credible civil society organizations and nongovernmental organizations able to deliver food and medicines to Venezuelans. By doing so, the United States should make clear that international pressure aims to support democracy, not punish the Venezuelan people.

3. The United States could support efforts by the opposition in Venezuela to build an “off-ramp” that would split moderate elements of the government away from hardliners, encouraging the former to acquiesce to a transition to democracy by lowering their costs of exiting government.

4. The United States could coordinate with international institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to offer financial incentives for holding free and fair elections in 2018, and for the opposition to unify and compete in those elections. Such coordination would also involve developing and publicizing a credible plan to restart Venezuela’s economy.

5. As a last resort, the United States could consider raising economic costs to the government through an expanded sanctions regime that aims to limit Venezuelan earnings from oil exports and block further financing. This policy is risky, given that the Maduro government would be able to more credibly shift blame for the economic crisis onto the United States, and should be accompanied by well-publicized efforts to deliver humanitarian aid through credible civil society and nongovernmental organizations.

It is a prescription for further economic isolation, US-funded political subversion, and with its reference to “a transition to democracy,” an oblique call for regime change.

The US media – particularly organizations operating from under right cover – have portrayed Venezuela’s economic crisis as primarily related to “socialism” and corruption. In reality, factors that would have only impeded the full realization of Venezuela’s economic progress have been intentionally compounded through US sanctions, economic sabotage, and political subversion to precipitate the currently unfolding socioeconomic and humanitarian crisis.

Venezuela would not be the first nation the US targeted for economic implosion in South America.

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in its own online archives available to the public under a section titled, “CIA Activities in Chile,” would admit (emphasis added):

According to the Church Committee report, in their meeting with CIA Director Richard Helms and Attorney General John Mitchell on 15 September 1970 President Nixon and his National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, directed the CIA to prevent Allende from taking power. They were “not concerned [about the] risks involved,” according to Helms’ notes. In addition to political action, Nixon and Kissinger, according to Helms’s notes, ordered steps to “make the economy scream.”

These Cold War attitudes persisted into the Pinochet era. After Pinochet came to power, senior policymakers appeared reluctant to criticize human rights violations, taking to task US diplomats urging greater attention to the problem. US military assistance and sales grew significantly during the years of greatest human rights abuses. According to a previously released Memorandum of Conversation, Kissinger in June 1976 indicated to Pinochet that the US Government was sympathetic to his regime, although Kissinger advised some progress on human rights in order to improve Chile’s image in the US Congress.

With violence increasing in the streets of Venezuela and many of the rhetorical tactics used to set the stage for violent  regime change and humanitarian catastrophe in Libya and Syria now being used to topple the government in Caracas – the world must get ahead of the propaganda and begin exposing this open conspiracy against yet another sovereign nation.

Venezuela’s political system is for the Venezuelan people themselves to decide – without US interference. A government dominated by US-backed opposition members will leave Venezuela as an extension of US corporate-financier special interests, not an alternative or check against them This only serves in inviting further abuse by these interests not only in South America, but all around the world – Afghanistan, Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, and Ukraine for example – where America’s unwarranted wealth and influence is sowing instability, conflict, and catastrophe.


37 Comments

  1. Know when to give up, this s just pathetic. —
    PDRTJS_settings_8444671_comm_68528={“id”:8444671,”unique_id”:”wp-comment-68528″,”title”:”Do%20not%20mess%20up%20all%20the%20opposition%20just%20because%20some%20people%20did%20bad%20things%21%20We%20Venezuelans%20are%20suffering.

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    • Alejandro says

      Do not mess up all the opposition just because some people did bad things! We Venezuelans are suffering. Our family members died, died of hunger, were harassed by pro-government militias. More than 40 demonstrators were killed in recent weeks. What about that?

      How dare you foolish strangers interfere with our business! You have no right.

      Infant mortality increased by 30 percent last year and maternal mortality by 65 percent. It’s not America’s fault. It’s Maduro’s fault.

      I was at a protest a few days ago and we were harassed by pro-government militias. Maduro gave them guns, but we’re not allowed to have them!

      Like

  2. I, for one, am so sick and tired of US egregious intervention in the political business of other nations. It is even worse when you see the gross hypocrisy of the Congress hallucinating over imaginary Russian interference in American “democracy”! We have seen the so called democracy operating in the US (Right Senator Sanders?). Lip service to democratic ideals is all the political class in America pays to democracy and nothing else.

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  3. Matt says

    “The “opposition” is comprised of US-backed political parties and US-funded fronts posing as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) many of which are listed on the US State Department’s National Endowment for Democracy (NED) website.”

    Ah yes, the opposition is a bunch of puppets. We should be good little sheeple and believe everything Almighty Maduro tells us.

    What was that? “Maduro and his predecessors mismanaged their economy by not diversifying away from oil exports and blowing away money on free stuff for more votes”? “The opposition is genuine and has been persecuted by Maduro’s thugs”?

    Nonsense! That is simply impossible!

    This is all the fault of U.S./Israeli economic sabotage. The opposition is a bunch of fascist, CIA-controlled pigs (gee, where have we heard that before?)!

    And if you dare criticize Maduro, you are a CIA asset.

    /s, for the feeble minded.

    This isn’t “alternative” media. It’s a naive, gullible useful idi*t spreading state-sponsored propaganda. And the sheeple eat it right up, because it’s against the U.S.

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    • You are continuing to post content-free, source-free and mildly abusive spam. Please cite sources for your points of disagreement.

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      • Matt says

        Becoming more and more like your pseudo-namesake, arent’cha?

        What do you want me to “source”? I pointed out that the author of this heart-stoppingly truthful piece did not provide evidence that the opposition are American stooges. Simple.

        Pray tell, what do you want me to source? You have been following me around, deleting some of my posts, and asking for sources in situations where I merely expressed a lack of evidence given by the authors.

        That, IMO, is abuse.

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        • 1) Of course you are being “followed around” and monitored – you have just been outed as using multiple IDs to post largely empty and fact-free carping. The fact you are still here and posting testifies to exactly how UNlike our “pseudo-namesake” we are.

          2) You claim NOT to be trolling, so we are giving you the benefit of the doubt, which you are currently abusing in order to post the same screeds of fact-free snarking laced with abuse.
          Be constructive, polite if possible and if you disagree with a claim cite reasons. If you don’t do this you are simply outing yourself and your real agenda. Content-free abuse and spam is one of the only sorts of post we DO delete. So, if your content-free and/or abusive posts are removed that is your own fault.

          Like

    • George says

      “This isn’t “alternative” media. It’s a naive, gullible useful idi*t spreading state-sponsored propaganda. And the sheeple eat it right up, because it’s against the U.S.”

      So – by your logic, TRUE alternative, NON-state-sponsored media would be ALL FOR the US government just like the mainstream state-sponsored media!

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      • Matt says

        Nope. True alternative media would provide the TRUTH, not some word-for-word mumbo jumbo from a South American dictator.

        Criticism for the sake of criticism is wrong and is not an “alternative” to anything. It goes without saying: a lie is a lie, no matter who its told by and whom its reported by.

        I read my fair share of alternative media, and there are gems out there – CounterPunch, DemocracyNow, and many honest individuals who provide their own expert opinion on various issues relating to domestic/foreign affairs, economics, etc. But I have also noticed a large-scale proliferation in news sites masquerading as “alternative” media, but are really just outlets that spread false conspiracy theories for political, partisan, or other reasons.

        This piece of fiction is an example of that.

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        • Joe says

          Why is it mumbo-jumbo? And why should we believe some guy who turns up posting under numerous fake names and emails, and who hits every talking point sanctioned by the mainstream?

          Aside from repeating the claims in the article in an oh-so clever sarcastic tone like some belligerent 17-yr old, and apart from predictably advocating “alt news” that isn’t ”alt” at all (Democracy Now) but which parrots the mainstream views with tiny modifications, what actual data do you possess?

          Are you saying the US has no strategic foreign interests? Or are you saying it’s ridiculous to think it would defend them? Are you saying the US doesn’t regard S America as its near-abroad and hasn’t been directly involved in overthrowing governments it finds unfriendly? Because even the WH press corps found that suggestion laughable.

          Are you using ridicule in the hopes it will make people think what you are ridiculing is per se ridiculous without the need for facts which you don’t have?

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          • Matt says

            Sheesh, I only used two names on entirely different threads. Guess that makes me a CIA/Soros shill?

            As for “talking points”, claiming that the opposition in Venezuela is NOT CIA controlled is now an MSM talking point?

            I see zero evidence given that the opposition are fascist, right-wing, neo-liberal, coup-plotting CIA stooges.

            I will now address the points made in your next post:

            ” the article you’re discussing is written by Tony Cartalucci, features quotes from the Brookings Institute, quotes from the CIA and a quote from the Independent.”

            First, absolutely nothing from the Brookings Institute policy paper is malicious. It merely says that the U.S. should encourage the authoritarian Maduro regime to do its constitutional duty and engage with the opposition, rather than jailing/killing them on bogus charge or using the Supreme Court to usurp power. How in God’s name is encouraging civil discussion bad? Maduro has given his supporters large amounts of guns, to use as protesters. In anyone is encouraging violence, it is Maduro. Stopping that is not bad. Further, it does not prove the author’s claim that the opposition is a bunch of U.S. stooges.

            The CIA quotes are old and do not provide proof that the current opposition, which has been silenced, is an American puppet.

            The Indy quote merely acknowledges a past conflict and that the NED has provided money to the opposition in Venezuela. This is not good, I admit. However, we should not get into the habit of smearing those the NED donates too. Many good civil organizations receive NED donations are they have no ulterior agenda. Further, a few hundred thousand dollars over multiple years is chump change. Election campaigns are expensive. I also recall this website criticizing the MSM for smearing Le Pen for being a Russian stooge because she received some loans from a Russia-connected bank. Thus, there is much hypocrisy here.

            A claim was made, that the U.S. is trying to oust Maduro and that the opposition are CIA stooges. But no evidence was given. Just some historical facts, but they are not substitutes for current evidence.

            Like

            • Joe Staten says

              So, what you mean by “mumbo-jumbo” is a bunch of well-sourced data that draws conclusions you don’t want people to agree with.Ok, at least you admit it. You’e trolling.

              First, absolutely nothing from the Brookings Institute policy paper is malicious. It merely says that the U.S. should encourage the authoritarian Maduro regime to do its constitutional duty and engage with the opposition

              “Matt”, you’re fucking terrible at this. There’s no point in lying about what a document says when the document is right there and people can see you’re lying. From the Brookings quote above:

              5. As a last resort, the United States could consider raising economic costs to the government through an expanded sanctions regime that aims to limit Venezuelan earnings from oil exports and block further financing.

              In case you don’t get it, “Matt”, that means deliberately tanking the economy to destabilise the country.

              1. The United States could expand its assistance to countries that until now have been dependent on Venezuelan oil, as a means to decrease regional support for and dependence on the Maduro government.

              That means paying countries to boycott Venezuela as a trading partner in order to tank the economy “Matt.”

              2. The United States could increase monetary assistance to credible civil society organizations and nongovernmental organizations able to deliver food and medicines to Venezuelans. By doing so, the United States should make clear that international pressure aims to support democracy, not punish the Venezuelan people.

              That means after the US deliberately tanks the economy it pays NGOs to take food to the people whose lives it has destroyed in hopes they will love the US and hate their government.

              Bit different from your ridiculous whitewash of the contents isn’t it.

              You’re a troll, and a terrible one.

              Like

              • Matt says

                False accusations of trollery only hide your poor logic.

                ” well-sourced data that draws conclusions you don’t want people to agree with.Ok, ”

                No evidence given here is “well-sourced”. There is an Indy link discussing the 2002 coup attempt, and a hyped up Brookings Institute policy paper that suggests FUTURE policy changes by the U.S. Thus, all this is hypothetical. It it not “proof” that the U.S. is “economically destabilizing” Venezuela. And a think-tank policy paper is not “proof” of anything whatsoever.

                In fact, zero evidence is given of U.S. “economic sabotage.” You are claiming that future policy suggestions by a think tank are “proof” that the U.S. is currently destabilizing Venezuela, which is circular logic.

                “That means after the US deliberately tanks the economy it pays NGOs to take food to the people whose lives it has destroyed in hopes they will love the US and hate their government.”

                Oh God, this is hilarious. And over dramatic. First, once again, I must point out that zero proof is given of the U.S. being responsible for Venezuela’s current issues. None. Second, all that proposal is suggesting is to send aid to Venezuela. How is this bad? Even your Russia is sending aid there.

                Now that I have debunked your fallacious reasoning, I suggest you educate yourself on the Venezuelan crisis and why the economy is doing so poorly (hint, it’s not the Yanks’ fault):

                http://origins.osu.edu/article/roots-venezuela-s-failing-state

                It’s amusing to see so-called “anti-imperialists” fall for these obvious lies, especially since you people spend so much time criticizing the U.S. government for using Russia as a boogeyman, the exact same thing Maduro is doing to the U.S.

                Like

                • all that proposal is suggesting is to send aid to Venezuela. How is this bad? Even your Russia is sending aid there.

                  The document openly calls for the sabotage of Venezuelan oil markets and the bribing of Venezuelan trade partners to abandon their alliance with Venezuela. You are simply claiming black is white. That is trolling

                  Like

                • Joe says

                  Oh God, this is hilarious. And over dramatic.

                  There you go again “Matt.” Using badly done and badly overplayed ridicule to try and distract from your failure to troll successfully. You’re so bad at this it’s actually making me feel sorry for you.

                  all that proposal is suggesting is to send aid to Venezuela.

                  Oh “Matt.” Know when to give up, this s just pathetic. Here’s the Brookings article. I’m gonna take you through it and rub your sad puppy face in each segment so you can tell me how remedially pitifully full on stupid and how much of a (3rd rate) troll you have to be to try and pretend it’s suggesting “sending aid”

                  1. The United States could expand its assistance to countries that until now have been dependent on Venezuelan oil, as a means to decrease regional support for and dependence on the Maduro government.

                  How is paying other countries to ditch trade deals with Venezuela “sending aid to Venezuela” Matt?

                  3. The United States could support efforts by the opposition in Venezuela to build an “off-ramp” that would split moderate elements of the government away from hardliners, encouraging the former to acquiesce to a transition to democracy by lowering their costs of exiting government.

                  How is “supporting” the opposition to overthrow the government (sorry, “lower their costs of exiting”) “sending aid to Venezuela?

                  5. As a last resort, the United States could consider raising economic costs to the government through an expanded sanctions regime that aims to limit Venezuelan earnings from oil exports and block further financing. This policy is risky, given that the Maduro government would be able to more credibly shift blame for the economic crisis onto the United States, and should be accompanied by well-publicized efforts to deliver humanitarian aid through credible civil society and nongovernmental organizations.

                  How is using sanctions to block Venezuelan oil exports “sending aid to Venezuela”?

                  And why do you keep calling Maduro a dictator? Is it because you are paid to pretend only governments that toe the US line are “democratic”? Or are you as stupid as your cringingly tragic attempts at being a witty and devilish little gadfly suggest?

                  You can’t pull it off. You’re not clever enough for the trickster thing. Your attempts at multiple IDs just ended up making you look foolish and your attempts at clever dodging just make readers blush with shame for you.

                  Like

                  • Matt says

                    It is possible that you lack reading comprehension skills. You are claiming that a that a policy paper with unimplemented suggestions, published just last month, is proof that the U.S. is economically sabotaging Venezuela, whose economic issues began in 2014 with the drop in the oil price that same year.

                    There is a distinct lack of logical reasoning here.

                    Venezuela’s economic issues began in 2014, with the oil price drop. Pray tell, where is the evidence that the U.S. is responsible for all these issues? Quoting a policy paper published YEARS after the issues began (that actually has unimplemented suggestions) is not proof.

                    Once again: provide evidence that the U.S. has taken actions to sabotage Venezuela’s economy. Also debunk the article I listed earlier, which spoke about Venezuela’s over-reliance on oil exports.

                    Reposting this policy paper is pointless. And I doubt you can find even a shred of evidence that the U.S. is responsible for Venezuela’s economic issues, mainly because you know nothing about Maduro’s own claims and that even Venezuelans know he is lying. Do you know what he claims? Here are his specific claims:

                    The U.S. is colluding with warehouses around Venezuela to purposely create artificial shortage of goods. He claims that’s why there is a shortage of products. He also claims the shortages are caused by “evil speculators”. They are actually caused by his price controls.
                    He claims that “mafias” in Colombia are stockpiling boats of bolívars, and sneaking across the border to buy up price-controlled goods. This makes zero sense, considering Venezuela’s soaring inflation. The idea that anybody would want to hoard a currency that has lost 60% of its value in mere months is ludicrous.

                    In December, his administration also seized millions of toys from a toymaker that they claimed was charging too much. The government distributed them away for children. Pure theft. That’s one of many, many examples.

                    By the way, Maduro has claimed multiple times to publicly show “evidence” of U.S. economic sabotage, but has never followed through. I wonder why?

                    https://venezuelanalysis.com/news/11470

                    Lastly, if you understand Spanish, try listening to/reading subtitles of some of the speeches he gives. You’ll notice he regularly refers to Americans as “Gringos” and other slurs.

                    But hey, naïve Western “anti-imperialists” are not known to research the people they blindly defend. You are no different.

                    “And why do you keep calling Maduro a dictator? Is it because you are paid to pretend only governments that toe the US line are “democratic”?”

                    Yawn, yes I am paid. You figured me out. Just because I have the audacity to call your Maduro a dictator, you slander me. Boring.

                    You know nothing about Venezuela, its people, or its politics. Nada. To a Venezuelan living in Canada, who voted for Maduro back in 2013 and later fled the country, your claims are not just wrong, but an insult to all those who have suffered because of the Maduro REGIME.

                    Like

                    • Thank you for being transparent about your payment for supporting the US and criticizing Venezuela.

                      Like

                • Joe says

                  Oh go away and take a course on “how to troll successfully,” this is remedial and pathetic.

                  HINT: Introducing facts that injure your cause (viz. that the CIA instigates “popular revolutions” as a means of overthrowing regimes it doesn’t like) isn’t a good move – and doing it in a “silly voice” doesn’t make it better for you.

                  Like

        • Joe says

          Forgot to add. You make this priceless observation:

          Nope. True alternative media would provide the TRUTH, not some word-for-word mumbo jumbo from a South American dictator.

          This is a weird thing for you to say, “Matt”, because the article you’re discussing is written by Tony Cartalucci, features quotes from the Brookings Institute, quotes from the CIA and a quote from the Independent.

          Which of these are you claiming is a “South American dictator”? Are you saying Cartalucci is a South American dictator?Or Maybe the Indy? What South American dictator are you referring to, “Matt”?

          Be honest, you didn’t bother to read the article did you. You just came in to knee jerk abuse and sneer because either that’s your job or you’re such a bigot it’s all you can do.

          Like

          • flybow says

            Don’t feed the troll droogie. It will go back under it’s bridge in time if left alone.

            Like

        • George says

          My observation still stands i.e. that this great TRUTH you want to hear just happens to correspond with the MSM anyway. Funny that.

          Like

    • archie1954 says

      Could be but then again, history has shown the complete contempt the US has for Central and South American nations and their forms of governance. After all, 15 years ago, the US had an active part in the military coup against Chavez, something he never forgot!

      Like

      • Matt says

        Yes, I agree. The 2002 coup attempt was very real. But a past event can not be used as evidence for current events. The opposition has been silenced, its power in the national legislature completely ignored at first, and now taken away by the Supreme Court. Isn’t that wrong too?

        I think we can criticize both the U.S. and Maduro admin in an honest manner.

        Like

        • Joe Staten says

          a past event can not be used as evidence for current events.

          You’re confused. Past crimes can’t be used as evidence in a criminal trial. But past events are used as evidence for current events all the time. The fact the CIA is known to have backed the overthrow of governments in Chile, Grenada and numerous other locations makes it inferentially far more likely, even without direct evidence, the CIA will be doing it in any given location the US feels its interests threatened.

          Yes, we can criticise in an honest manner, but you aren’t are you. You pretended the claims on the article were ridiculous, turns out on examination you are forced to admit they are only “unproven” but are backed up with lots of circumstantial evidence.

          So, your ridiculing was just theatre then, you admit it.

          Like

          • Matt says

            The claims are ridiculous. The author gives zero evidence that the U.S. is responsible for “economically sabotaging” Venezuela.

            I debunked your bizarre logic above.

            Like

            • The claims are ridiculous. The author gives zero evidence that the U.S. is responsible for “economically sabotaging” Venezuela.

              This is flatly untrue. The Brookings Institute article quoted both in the original article and again by Joe Staten openly advocates for the “economic sabotaging” of Venezuela. That may not be proof of US policy but it is undeniably evidence that points to it. Your comments need to take account of this, pretending evidence simply isn’t there is trolling not constructive discussion.

              Like

            • Sorry Matt, but the US as always believed it controlled all of South America let alone Venezuela. There is no doubt in my mind that the terrible Venezuelan economic problems and the strong and violent opposition to Maduro are are paid for and supported by the US and the CIA. That is an historical truth and we have no reason to believe it has changed (remember the failed American supported coup of 2002)!

              Like

    • Frank says

      ”What was that? “Maduro and his predecessors mismanaged their economy by not diversifying away from oil exports and blowing away money on free stuff for more votes”? “The opposition is genuine and has been persecuted by Maduro’s thugs”?

      This may or may not be true. However, it is all beside the point. The United States does not have the right to intervene in another sovereign state either overtly or covertly, which it is not at war with, and which does not threaten the US. This would be a breach of International Law as defined by the UN. Not that the US gives a hoot about the International law as we bear witness to in the middle east or its own sphere of influence in Latin America.

      Now let me see, the US has intervened openly or covertly in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Grenada, and maybe a few others I haven’t listed. And this is just in its own backyard. Of course this involved the usual CIA-tactics of death-squads, assassinations, sabotagate and the financing of local mercenary paramilitaries to do its dirty work.

      But being the ‘exceptional people’ they believe that they not only have the right to meddle in the internal affairs of other states but indeed have a duty to do so. As the arch-apostle of globalization – Francis Fukuyama once stated with regard to Yugoslavia ”Dictators and human rights abusers likes Serbia’s Milosevic (recently exonerated of any wrong-doing) could not hide behind (sic) the principle of sovereignty to protect themselves … under these circumstances, outside powers (US-NATO of course) acting in the name of human rights and democratic legitimacy, had not just the right but the OBLIGATION to intervene.” (F.Fukuyama -State Building)

      It must be understood that the US, being the ‘good guy’ has the solemn duty to bring into line those uppity states which do not conform to the criteria laid down by ‘we’ the exceptional people. Yes, they will be bombed or otherwise subverted for their own good.

      I had supposed that the Treaty of Westphalia did away with this sort of nonesense, but maybe I am wrong.

      Like

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