Daydreaming While Reading Jonathan Crary’s 24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep

Edward Curtin

“Sleep that knits up the raveled sleave of care, The death of each day’s life, sore labor’s bath, Balm of hurt minds, great nature’s second course, Chief nourisher in life’s feast.”
Shakespeare, Macbeth

People often laugh when I tell them that I go to sleep at 8:15 P.M.  They laugh harder when I say it’s been a lifetime habit, with unavoidable exceptions of course.  And that I wake up long before dawn.

Not because I am a dairy farmer or a baker, but because I love to sleep and all the best things I have written have been written in my dreams and refined during reveries while walking or in the early morning when all is silent still and I am alone with my musings.

I have always felt that sleeping and being awake were a seamless whole, contrary to the go-getters’ attitude that sleep and dreams are a waste of time, and I have been blessed with the ability to fall asleep as soon as I crawl into my crib and usually to remember my dreams in detail when I wake.

Jonathan Crary, the Meyer Schapiro Professor of Modern Art and Theory at Columbia University, agrees that sleep is profoundly important and under assault today.  To enter his book, 24/7, Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep, (which was first published in 2014) is for me to discover a kindred spirit, but also to enter a mind so capacious and profound that I wish to share his insights while I dream in words.

If what William Wordsworth (what a name!) wrote in 1802 was true then,

The world is too much with us; late and soon,
Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers;—
Little we see in Nature that is ours;
We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!

What possibly could one say about today?  That shopping or thinking about shopping – things or propaganda or the latest useless buzz – is all we know?  That we have become completely insane, bamboozled by a capitalist techno-electronic madness that has not only seized our hearts but convinced our minds that it is good to spend our lives – our sleep and dreams and time and praxis – in tending to machines that destroy our souls night and day without interruption.

When fifty plus years ago the monk Thomas Merton wrote that “someday they will sell us the rain,” he could today add that the hard rain that Dylan sung of then has already fallen and they now need not sell us anything because we have eaten the bitter fruit of our own corruption.

People say they want peace while they fill their nights and days with digital dreams, eliminating what Crary calls “fugitive anonymity” for the bait of 24/7 capitalist drug addiction and being “with it.”  All the clichés have it that peace begins with “you,” yet you has become them or it, the tech-life 24/7.  I hear Sinatra singing Cole Porter’s lyrics today as

Night and day, you are the one
Only you ‘neath the moon or under the sun
Whether near to me or far
It’s no matter, cell phone, where you are
I think of you day and night

And such love is reciprocated, of course, as the electronic machines help so many distracted and restless souls make it through the night. Sort of. Not the kind of help Kris Kristofferson sang about, but a fleshless flashing gizmo colder than a frozen heart.

It is well known that sleep disorders are widespread today with technologically produced sleep drugs (and now marijuana) used by vast numbers of people. Such drug-induced sleep, the flip side of the frenetic passivity that precedes and follows it, occurs within a larger 24/7 sleepless framework that Crary accurately notes happens “…within the globalist neoliberal paradigm, [for] sleeping is for losers.” 

Yet what’s to be won is never enunciated because the winners’ faces are always well-hidden as they execute the prodigious capitalist machine of control that creates docility and separation in people who find the machine life irresistible – even as it drains them of easy-going vitality and the joy of dawdling, even for an idle while.  Doing nothing has become a crime.

Last night I stepped outside an hour after sunset and was startled by a massive full moon eyeing me as it rose over the eastern hills.  Here where I dwell there are no city or factory lights to block the moon and stars as they illuminate our nights.

But most people are not so lucky, for what our ancestors once took for granted – that we are part of nature, part of the Tao – has been lost for so many as artificial lights, urbanization, and a 24/7 linguistic mind-control ideology block the thrill of being transfixed by the moon’s loving gaze, an invitation to taste the sweetness of the north wind’s cookie.

Maybe the sight of her face might rattle the televised images lodged in people’s “memories” of mechanical misbegotten men in ghost suits trampling her peaceful countenance.

The 24/7 digital life, essential to neo-liberal financialized capitalism with its day and night markets and infrastructure that allow for continuous consumption and work – total availability – is the culmination of a long process that began with the invention of artificial lighting that allowed the English cotton mills to run 24/7.

Crary brilliantly illustrates this point through the 1782 painting, Arkwright’s Cotton Mills by Night, by the British artist James Derby.  This painting shows the windows of the massive mills lit like pin-points in the rural night, watched over by a full moon that illuminates the sky.

Incongruous time indeed!

He writes, “The artificial lighting of the factories announces the rationalized deployment of an abstract relation between time and work, severed from the cyclical temporalities of lunar and solar movements.”  This radical break from the traditional relation between time and work and the earth was later noted by Karl Marx as essential to the advance of capitalism since it disconnected the laboring individual from all interdependent connections to family, community, etc. while reorienting people’s feelings for time.

The English art critic John Berger, who knew that time with its corollary to place was a key to understanding so much history, put it this way: “Every ruling minority needs to numb and, if possible, to kill the time-sense of those it exploits.  This is the authoritarian secret of all methods of imprisonment.”

Dreaming of imprisonment, I just remembered that although it seems like a delusion from so far away and long ago, I once worked in a factory by day with its huge blast furnaces, in a NYC Police precinct jail on the 4-12 P.M. shift, and all-night as a nightwatchman. All good lessons in how American society works, although I hated them all and labored simply for the pay.  But each in its own way taught me about imprisonment, especially the watchman’s job, since it involved a jolting sense of time and staying awake all night and sleeping by day. I was always exhausted and felt I was violating my deepest nature.

Sleep deprivation is a central component of the torturers’ methods, as so many victims of the U.S. war machine have learned.  And the Pentagon (DARPA) has spent vast sums trying to create a sleepless soldier who can go at least seven days without sleep.

As Crary notes: “…scientists in various labs are conducting experimental trials of sleeplessness techniques, including neurochemicals, gene therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation.”  The war against sleep is being waged on many fronts by well-armed maniacs intent on controlling human beings for nefarious ends. To control sleep is to control time is to confound minds, which is the goal.

Ovid, the most sensual of Roman poets, would be shocked, I imagine, to learn that Morpheus, the god of sleep and dreams from his Metamorphoses, would be attacked so relentlessly by today’s madmen who never heard of his poetry.  My mind drifts to my college days translating Ovid under a weeping willow.  “My cause is better: no-one can claim that I ever took up arms against you,” he wrote and I read.

These words come back to me as I muse on the arms taken today against sleep, but I’m not sure if it’s Ovid or Bob Dylan’s lyrics in his song Workingman’s Blues #2 (from the album Modern Times) that fly to mind, for Dylan also sings “No-one can ever claim/ That I took up arms against you.”

Poor Morpheus, so many people in these modern times yearn for your arms but instead of that balm, they toss and turn in a time out of mind and out of sleep.

Crary tells us that the amount of sleep the average North American adult gets has gone from ten hours in the early twentieth century to eight hours a generation ago to six-and-a-half today.  And although people will always have to sleep, I think we can expect further reductions.  To say it is a form of torture is probably an exaggeration, but not by much.  He writes:

Behind the vacuity of the catchphrase, 24/7 is a static redundancy that disavows its relation to the rhythmic and periodic textures of human life…A 24/7 environment has the semblance of a social world, but it is actually a non-social model of machinic performance and a suspension of living that does not disclose the human cost required to sustain its effectiveness… 24/7 is a time of indifference, against which the fragility of human life is increasingly inadequate and within which sleep has no necessity or inevitability.  In relation to labor, it renders plausible, even normal, the idea of working without pause, without limits.  It is aligned with what is inanimate, inert, or unageing.  As an advertising exhortation it decrees the absoluteness of availability, and hence the ceaselessness of needs and their incitement, but also their perpetual non-fulfillment.

In other words, 24/7 is a form of linguistic mind control tied to cell phones, computers, and the digital life of the Internet whose purpose is to convince people that sleep and the human body is somehow unnatural and the future lies with people accepting their marriage to machines in a disenchanted and transhuman world. It is a lie, of course, for if that is a future people accept, there will be no future, just a desert.

“Deleuze and Guattari went to the point of comparing the order-word [24/7] to a ‘death sentence,’” writes Crary. Such an order-word or imperative is similar in this respect to the term “9/11” which was coined to send an instant message that emergencies will now be endless so we will have to monitor you forevermore. Keep your cell phone ready.  Be on your toes, stay alert, the terrorists come at all hours – keep awake!

Crary makes a profoundly important point at a time when there is much justifiable focus on propaganda and the lies of governments and the media.  This is the power of habit involved in the acceptance of the naturalness of various devices – today, electronic screens that are omnipresent – that we semi-automatically accept as normal.

He says, “In this sense, they are part of larger strategies of power in which the aim is not mass-deception, but rather states of neutralization and inactivation, in which one is dispossessed of time.  But even within habitual repetitions there remains a thread of hope – a knowingly false hope – that one more click or touch might open onto something to redeem the overwhelming monotony in which one is immersed.  One of the forms of disempowerment within 24/7 environments is the incapacitation of daydream or any mode of absent-minded introspection that would otherwise occur in intervals of slow or vacant time.”

This is part of a modern process of psychological reductionism and a changed understanding of the nature of wishes that have excluded dreaming and daydreaming from any connection to a traditional magico-theological framework.  Science and especially the neuro-sciences have reduced all life to what is empirically provable, attenuating life and the creation of art in the service of human life.

Crary uses Jean Paul Satre’s inelegant but insightful neologism, “practico-inert,” to explain people’s inability to see the nature of the social worlds they are part of with any clarity.  “The practico-inert was thus Sartre’s way [in Critique of Dialectical Reason] of designating the sedimented, institutional everyday world constituted out of human energy but manifested as the immense accumulation of routine passive activity.”

To repeat, this frenetic passivity serves to obscure the negative historical reality of life in a 24/7 electronic spectacle that is advertised as amazingly empowering but is the reverse.

For direct experience has fallen on hard times as life today has come to be mediated through electronic gadgets.  Surprises must be googled in advance or photographed to prove their reality. Living is never easy, not in the summertime or any other season. Tension, inattention, exhaustion, and constant busyness are the order of the day. This should be self-evident but isn’t.  People feel it but can’t see it.

Commenting on the dying art of storytelling, Walter Benjamin, in an essay called “The Storyteller,” said the following about people’s ability to listen and remember stories that they can integrate into their own experience so they can pass them on [my emphasis]:

This process of assimilation, which takes place in depth, requires a state of relaxation, which is becoming rarer and rarer [written in 1936].  If sleep is the apogee of physical relaxation, boredom is the apogee of mental relaxation.  Boredom is the dream bird that hatches the egg of experience.  A rustling in the leaves drives him away.  His nesting places – the activities that are intimately associated with boredom – are already extinct in the cities and are declining in the country as well.  With this the gift of listening is lost and the community of listeners disappears.

We have gone beyond rustling in the bushes to a cacophonous electronic world that makes one deaf to all else.  That it will come crashing down around our ears is hard to imagine, but it will.  It already has in the damage that it’s done.

Once upon a time . . . well, I will spare you.  It might just seem like the dream of a ridiculous man, or something Dostoevsky would write, not your normal story or even daydream.

So read Jonathan Crary’s brilliant, 24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep and its sequel, Scorched Earth: Beyond the Digital Age to a Post-Capitalist World.  They will get you to think about your sleep habits and whether or not you are ever turned off and tuned out but just sometimes only in “sleep mode.”


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Dec 13, 2023 5:46 PM

Really appreciated this article. I miss the times when the collective took certain days off. Sunday was the most obvious, whether religious or not. Many stores were closed. It almost feels like a betrayal sometimes to see people working on Sunday. I feel an irritation in my soul. “Frenetic passivity” summed up this great article/review for me.

underground poet
underground poet
Dec 6, 2023 11:41 AM

Next they will be trying to read and walk at the same time, and I thought chewing gum was a challenge.

Dec 4, 2023 9:48 PM

Most people are sleepwalking, dreaming they are awake.

Dec 4, 2023 9:46 PM

Great article. If I’m not mistaken, the body requires sleep for the brain to put things in order so you remain functional. Dreaming is an essential part of the process. Hard core drunks lose their capacity to dream. That is why they get DTs (Delirium Tremors) while they’re awake. The hallucinations stem from this as the brain must have dreams, so the body is making them dream in an awakened state. The ancient Chinese had a torturous method of killing someone. They used whatever methods necessary to keep the victim awake around the clock. In a matters of days, exactly how many depending on certain factors, the victim dies from lack of sleep. In most cases, it doesn’t take very many.

les online
les online
Dec 4, 2023 9:16 PM

‘Islam’ translates as ‘submission’
So too does ‘Capitalism’ – submission to The Market
(to The Economy), obedience to Economic Dictates…
So too does ‘Christianity” – submission to God…
It would seems all the Slaves are fighting over whose
Submission is Better ?

God’s Order, or Hell’s Anarchy ?
There is safety in Submission…

Erik Nielsen
Erik Nielsen
Dec 4, 2023 11:18 PM
Reply to  les online

To serve is not to be a slave. To serve is to serve a higher vision, a civilisation, a divine purpose.

An Architect serve his society by building comfortable houses, an Engineer serve us by securing these houses dont break down in our heads, a garbage man serve us by collecting our garbage.

The idea of specialisation is rationalisation and called civilisation. God’s order, a divine vision. Otherwise we should each make it all by ourselves, costly and time consuming keeping us on a low civilisation stage..

Hell’s Anarchy is the beast’s disorder, the animal’s survival of the “fittest”.

The Coming Revolution
The Coming Revolution
Dec 4, 2023 8:30 PM

Thank you Mr. Curtin; your writings are always thought provoking.   Many people submit to Capital and its gadgets in the hope, one day, they or more likely their children can afford a home in a residential area where they can enjoy constitutional walks (highly recommended by old folks for digestion and a good night sleep) and fresh air in the peace of the night, and where no building or factory smoke can hide from their sight the beauty of the moon.   Somehow, I see no contradiction between a 24/7 technology addict and the person depicted above; the former points to the latter and the difference between the is just elapsed time, that is, no difference at all considering the long duration. Also, the quiet residential neighbourhood our walker is enjoying was made possible only by past deafening noise, sickening dust, and labour exploitation – even perhaps tragedies, –… Read more »

Dec 5, 2023 4:41 AM

one can certainly have legitimate dispute with the minority/manager, but if objections are rejected, the cause of disharmony, then continued compliance is as good as carte blanche approval to recurring injustice….thus a neglect of life and a waste of time that allows insufficient space to progressively power the unavailing frippery that appeases the nothingness that remains.

The Coming Revolution
The Coming Revolution
Dec 6, 2023 12:57 PM
Reply to  boxofcrayons

Yes, and the incessant bombing of Gaza is a case in point (Thierry Meyssan asserts that no example in modern Warfare since the XXth century of such an intense bombing over such a minuscule area). Nothingness is the expected result indeed and by then, as you suggest, it would be too late to negotiate or appease anything or anyone, perhaps just the dead. But these are the words of us as private individuals who can do very little, if anything, to counter a mouvement of History of an international scale moved by its own inertia. Beyond the obvious, only too human, outrages we all need to express, and the protestations and agitation we feel impelled to make, there is no room for us, as unorganized individuals, to do much more. This is not an admission of absolute helplessness, nor does it imply approval or justification of tragedies; it is the… Read more »

Dec 4, 2023 7:59 PM
Dec 4, 2023 7:49 PM

Awesome, thank you. As a visual artist and lover of music, space, is as important as thing. In fact without space, thing occupies totally. Thing can’t exist without the space to exist in, space can’t exist without things to define it. Music-sounds don’t exist without being contained within space, and spaces. Thing has pulverized space in the Parent’s 21st C, as the elite use non-stop things to herd Humanity around like cattle, heading us into the pens of their open air digital prison. “Doing nothing has become a crime.” Thinking, which requires space, is not allowed, as it will deliver the return of space for commoners to think, design and create solutions to the disasters created by the elite. The parental elite are now overclocking (to adjust settings to increase performance beyond the limits of Mother Nature, Universe) everything to create the continual state of more which they desire but… Read more »

Dec 4, 2023 5:05 PM

Seems to me that most people dream day and night. The dream is always the same: we are here to make society work. We are part of some great machine that makes society work. We should do our bit. Our promotions, status, gadgets, vacations, are the rewards we reap from being a cog. The bigger the cog, the more you reward society and the more society rewards you. The only thing that is useful to society is to become a bigger cog in the wheel. You try to that for as long as you can, and then you wake up.

Some people never wake up.

Dec 5, 2023 4:56 AM
Reply to  Willem

You got some big dreams, baby, but in order to dream you gotta still be asleep..
Henry Kissinger’s got you tied up in knots..
You got unrighteous doctors dealing drugs that’ll never cure your ills..
You think He’s just an errand boy to satisfy your wandering desires..
They tell you, time is money..
-Bob Dylan, When You Gonna Wake Up

George Mc
George Mc
Dec 4, 2023 4:03 PM

Off topic but of maximum urgency for your health over the Christmas period:


Britons warned as Christmas decorations could cause difficulties breathing and fever symptoms

Our dedicated team of scientists have carried out intensive tests on various Christmas decorations and have established a clear link between pathology and morphology i.e. that normally harmless plastic and tinsel can become dangerous when contorted into certain shapes – primarily those of trees and stars. The mega biowaves of the fundamental universal vibration become seriously deviated from their organic utility this way. The result looks suspiciously like a heart attack but that’s just a coincidence.

Dec 4, 2023 11:18 AM
Dec 4, 2023 10:25 AM

comment image

Dec 4, 2023 11:59 AM
Reply to  niko


Dec 4, 2023 9:54 AM

I was quite enjoying this until I got to the death sentence “Deleuze and Guattari….” when my heart just sank. All words are order-words (mots d’ordre) and every sentence is a death sentence. As Hannah Arendt was fond of putting it “All speech is action and all action is speech” (before Austin). So everything we do is a performative speech-act ordered (transformed) by words in the form of critical judgements we enact. I’ve got no intention of elucidating the sequence of “judgement – thinking – action” excepting in its most basic form. We make critical judgements based on moral-ethical criteria (of superior and inferior) and we enact them as an interventionism in a shared world; an irrational economic interventionism that is a massively destructive death-drive organised and ordered by the word (logos.) If anybody is looking for the fount and source of world-alienation, individual isolation and totalitarianism – the ur-fascism… Read more »

George Mc
George Mc
Dec 4, 2023 9:44 AM

Sleep is dangerous for any ruling order because it marks a time when people’s minds are unregulated, uncontrolled. Dreams can come to them. And the very thought of dreams is worrying to the rulers. Dreams suggest alternatives.

Dec 4, 2023 2:38 PM
Reply to  George Mc

Repose beyond a bare minimum is not “productive”. Our self-appointed overlords would designate a wish for such rest a thought crime.

Dec 4, 2023 7:03 AM

I’ve always found it odd that most people think something we do between 1/4 and 1/2 of the entire time we are alive is somehow a waste of time. (A lot of these same people sit around awake all day doing fuck all)

I love sleep, a refuge from the days machinations, a look inside without the incessant noise of anothers ego.

Long live sleep!

Dec 4, 2023 3:09 AM

Sorry off topic, but this is a classic:

comment image?ssl=1

Erik Nielsen
Erik Nielsen
Dec 4, 2023 10:40 PM
Reply to  Johnny

Johnny and 27 thumbs up, you are feeling it that way? You feel that you have been over shitted, been drowned in shit. Everybody shit on you? Thats the way you feel it.

But thats not the way you should feel it.Being shit on by a bird is a 1 in a billion chance, about the same as winning the lottery. You won in the lottery!

Many people says a bird shit saved their lives or caused luck. If you see it this way, the manager is the loser guy because he never gets shitted and receive only the farts going upwards from your arses…………………………LOL. That joke was so funny man…..farts from your arses…. 😄 .

Placental Mammal
Placental Mammal
Dec 4, 2023 1:25 AM


I have lost a lot of sleep over the genocide currently in progress.

Dec 4, 2023 6:49 PM

indeed. I think lots of people have. Early bird here, too, and having a dog and 2 cats, early night as well. Beasts don’t understand change of time, just wake up as usual

Dec 4, 2023 12:40 AM

Mornings, before the brain is assaulted by the ‘news’ of the day.
Before the world takes over.
Before our daily rituals and routine.

Many writers, poets, artists, musicians and songwriters will testify that mornings are the most creative time of the day. Being a songwriter, I can vouch for that.

Dunno if I could hit the sack that early Ed. Too many books to read.

Dec 3, 2023 11:36 PM

Sleep no more. Time is everything, we are nothing, at most we are time’s carcass, as Marx observed. The market’s commodification and colonization of life as resources in machinery of production has become a 24/7 matrix. Data is the new oil, the energy which runs the techno-totalitarian engines of surveillance-security capitalism on a prison planet. The simulacra of the metaverse await our final assimilation into virtual reality of cyberspace, beyond losing ourselves on screens. We may still think by pushing a button we’ve turned off the machine, but it remains running in constant pursuit of colonizing our consciousness and being to the point of no return to any semblance of agency or autonomy. Where is Ned Ludd now that we need him more than ever?

Dec 3, 2023 11:08 PM

To sleep perchance to WAKE.
(And SEE through the veil of lies).

Dec 3, 2023 10:38 PM

Time is not on our side anymore. I first noticed the change when I first got what they called an ’email address’. At the time I had very little idea of it’s repercussions to my work life. Suddenly I was available to be conveyed to 7 days a week 24/7. No excuse was available for not reading a memo or acting on it. Then at the same time the mobile phone was added with voice mail and text. That’s when I knew I’d been trapped in my wilderness.
Today we exclusively live in this world of time management. Our time is more valuable to others than ourselves. We can’t make time so we make money instead which is somewhat okay with us. What we fail miserably to realize is that you can’t get that time back. You can’t go back in time or even buy it back.

Dec 4, 2023 2:44 PM
Reply to  JoeC

It is simple. Employers violated laws or employment contracts, and subverted government officials evaded the issue until it became entrenched.

Erik Nielsen
Erik Nielsen
Dec 4, 2023 10:19 PM
Reply to  JoeC

No, but you can buy time. Buy time enough to free yourself, and when you are free, its over.

Dec 3, 2023 9:36 PM

9-1-1 7-11 4-1-1 24-7 3-65
The Last Obstacle
The Final Frontier:
Occupy Your Mind

Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Dec 3, 2023 7:39 PM

Sleep is a ferocious battle for the old. But, on a more apposite note, I hate how everything closes early now. Before covid, all the grocery stores were going 24 hour. The diners were 24 hour. Bars and grills were open till 2pm. You weren’t constantly checking closing times (which, btw, the computer is always, not sometimes, not often, but always, wrong about–so much for computer infallibility). I miss those halcyon days. I also hate holidays, which seem to have proliferated. Whenever I have to go to the library, or city hall, or some other institution, it’s a holiday. And you always get sick and your car always breaks down on Saturday, count on it. So I hate weekends too. Can’t they just stagger them? I thought people were complaining about the “too rational” nature of modern society. I say it’s not rational enough. Rational would mean they stagger weekends… Read more »