Turkey’s dangerous game causing Idlib catastrophe

Firas Samuri

Putin, Rouhani and Erdogan after their joint meeting in Sochi, Russia.

The meeting of the heads of Russia, Turkey and Iran dedicated to the Syrian settlement was held in the Russian Black Sea resort of Sochi on February 14, 2019. Vladimir Putin, Hassan Rouhani and Recep Erdogan discussed possible ways of the political resolution of the Syrian crisis, joint steps that would help to calm the situation in Syria and seriously advance the peace process by showing respect for international law and the agreements undertaken by the parties concerned.

Speaking of the peaceful settlement in Idlib, the sides have agreed to continue working on the implementation of the Sochi summit. The certain adjustments on transferring Idlib’s largest part under Hayat Tahrir al-Sham (former Al-Qaida terrorists or HTS) control would be made. As of yet, it is not clear whether the hostilities against terrorists would open. The detailed answer could be given only after having analyzed the Turkish activity on implementing all the points of the Memorandum on Stabilization of the Situation in Idlib as well as after having studied the development of the situation since the document had been signed.

Details of the Memorandum

The Memorandum on Stabilization of the Situation in Idlib was signed in mid-September 2018. The document lists a ten-point plan to avoid an offensive in the northwestern Syrian province. Aside from the demilitarized zone, which would go “15-20 km deep in the de-escalation area”, the document grants the Iranian-Russian-Turkish coordination centre a role in implementing the ceasefires. That also said that Russia is responsible for outside security environment. And, Turkey is liable to take the security measures inside the zone.

The map of Idlib demilitarization zone

According to the second point, Russia will take all the necessary measures to ensure that military operations and attacks on Idlib will be avoided and the existing status quo will be maintained. Also, Turkey has taken some adjustments.

Some points of the Memorandum published by the National

The main complaint to Turkey is linked to points 5, 6, 8 and 9 of the Memorandum. The effective measures on ensuring ceasefire by Ankara have not been taken yet. Besides, Erdogan’s determination on fighting terrorists in Syria has not also been recorded. What is going on in Idlib with the direct complicity of Turkey?

Map Changing

Not only inaction but also silent endorsement of Turkey allows the radicals to seize power in the province.

The picture below clearly demonstrates HTS and the affiliated groups including Jaysh al-Izza control over the frontlines in Northern Hama, Western Aleppo, and Southern Idlib.

Map changes in Idlib since Memorandum has been signed

HTS militants officially rejected the terms of the Sochi agreement. The fulfilling of the deal by Erdogan is even less likely under the current circumstances.

In this regard, the statement of the Turkish Foreign Minister, Mevlut Cavusoglu, regarding the HTS attacks in Idlib looks quite ridiculous. “Radical groups are attacking the Syrian opposition, and we have taken necessary measures to halt these attacks”. On the one hand, this statement looks genuinely, but on the other hand, the Minister exaggerated the measures taken by Ankara, especially if we look at the map.

Cavusoglu rushed to improve the situation but did nothing better than blamed Assad for a redeployment of militants across the country to Idlib. It’s very amusing to hear that now when HTS has established control over the whole province. Why was everything all right for Ankara earlier when the terrorists flooded the region?

Has the process of establishing Islamic control over Idlib passed on silent approval of Turkey?

The defeat of Nour al-Din al-Zenki, Ahrah al-Sham concessions, dissolution of Free Idlib Police (the branch of Al-Qaida in Syria) played a crucial role in changing the balance of power.

Jaysh al-Ahrar acknowledged the power of Salvation Government controlled by HTS. Its leaders agreed on handing over its territories along the Syrian-Turkish border as well as strongholds and checkpoints to HTS.

Besides, in early January, HTS successfully captured National Liberation Front positions and turned over control of them to the Salvation Government. It was done following the peace agreement signed between the sides. After that, all the health facilities in Idlib stopped operating due to the suspension of supplies by the EU and international organizations. So, the situation in the province has turned into a humanitarian catastrophe.

Moreover, HTS reached an agreement on redeployment of 1,700 Jabhat al-Wataniya lil-Tahrir militants from Al-Gab to Afrin.

The other illegal armed groups concluded, without any resistance, an agreement with Al-Nusra on territorial transfer to the Salvation Government (linked to HTS), and the remnants of the moderate opposition joined the ranks of the terrorists. Thus, the atmosphere in the region became tenser. All the efforts to sort out the moderate opposition have failed.

By the way, the lack of Turkey’s and its pawns’ counteracting demonstrates the direct involvement of the Turkish special services in strengthening HTS in Idlib. Moreover, that is evidenced by the statement of HTS leader Abu Mohammad al-Julani, who has declared the support for the Turkish plan against Kurds in the northeastern Syria.

HTS “disciplines” Idlib

According to the representatives of other groups, a large number of former Free Syrian Policemen is unemployed, and now there is no one left to fight against corruption, robberies, assassinations and lootings (these indicators are slightly higher in Idlib than in other parts of Syria). And now, Idlib would be patrolled by “Islamic Police”, consisting of militant groups belonging to HTS instead of “Free Syrian police”.

Hiding behind the fight against the Islamic State (ISIS) the new authorities activity results in illegal arrests, prompt investigations, mass executions, murders of activists, kidnappings, terrorist attacks and indiscriminate shooting on the streets. First of all, it should be classified as dispatching of rivals, as well as establishing a single rule of the jihadists instead of securing the locals.

The residents gradually turned into al-Julani hostages. The radical elements managed not only to get inside and a foothold in the Syrian revolutionary movement, but also to lead it.

Maybe, that is why the leaked voice recording of a conversation between HTS militants, discussing rich man from Saraqib’ abduction is no longer surprising. During the incident, a woman was killed, and a child was severely wounded. HTS commander involved in the kidnapping, Abu Ahmad, offered to shift the responsibility for the woman killed onto an Idlib ISIS cell through the controlled propaganda media.

HTS militants executed 12 people responsible for a terrorist attack and allegedly linked to ISIS

The people of Idlib reasonably express fears for their own lives and lives of their loved ones as the cases of abduction have become more regular. That’s why the locals try to resist to the radicals.

Is the arms trade in line with the Memorandum?

Apart from repressions, HTS initiated the arms trade in the province. Underground gun shops offer rifles at a special price of $600 apiece. Anyone can easily buy a sniper rifle that looks like Romanian PSL DMR with a scope.

One can even purchase a suicide vest that is quite valuable on the black market. The ad says the vest contains 4 kilos of C4 explosives and old Soviet-made detonator. Meanwhile, you can also buy a homemade Mosin rifle.

All this indicates that HTS influence zone has expanded much. It turns out that Turkey violates the tenth point of the Memorandum obliging Ankara to combat terrorism in Syria in all forms and manifestations.

Due to the expansion of HTS influence zone, the eighth point of the Memorandum on the restoration of traffic along the M4 (Aleppo-Latakia) and M5 (Aleppo-Hama) highways is also not implemented.

Notably, in late January, HTS radicals blocked traffic at Afrin-Idlib highway arguing that they are afraid of ISIS infiltration in the province. And since January 29, they have blocked all the roads from rural Aleppo to Idlib.

Now the entry to Idlib is restricted, and each driver has to pay a $100 fee. Currently, the control is carried out by HTS militants.

The situation is also critical with food supplies. The occupation of a highway running to Bab al-Hawa border crossing by the radicals has resulted in higher prices of goods. According to The Guardian, the locals are afraid of the lack of money to buy food and to pay for fuel. This fact is especially critical when there is a virtual absence of jobs and people can’t even receive the minimum wage.

Under the current circumstances, the EU Council’s appeal to ensure unimpeded access of humanitarian aid to Idlib sounds more relevant than ever. And Turkey as a guarantor state must provide this opportunity.

Therefore, it can be stated that Erdogan failed to fulfill another point of the Sochi agreements related to the opening of the two key transport routes. On the contrary, the situation with communications in Idlib during the validity of the Memorandum has deteriorated. The various armed entities that had controlled the checkpoints were replaced by HTS jihadists who established their own rules.

For sure, these circumstances provide the preconditions for claims to Erdogan from Moscow, Tehran and Damascus.

Demilitarized zone issue

To remind, the fifth and the sixth points of the Memorandum envisage the withdrawal of the radical armed groups from the demilitarized zone till October, 15, 2018. Tanks, artillery units, MLRS and mortars had to be withdrawn till October, 10, 2018. Turkey has failed this issue too.
Hayat Tahrir al-Sham militants are strengthening their positions. They are regularly shelling the nearby settlements and building up their forces close to the frontline.

The largest part of Idlib demilitarization area is occupied by the terrorists. The local activists report that around 70% of the territory is seized by radicals. HTS is attacking the Syrian Army positions and human settlements.

HTS artillery fire is never interrupted in the al-Tah region, the southern Idlib. Thus, Turkish forces seem to have deliberately violated the Memorandum by not withdrawing the militants out of the province.

There have also been fierce clashes between the jihadists and SAA units on the frontline north-west to Aleppo. During the last one, the government forces succeeded to repulse HTS attack west to Abu Douhur in Idlib.

Sources from SAA say that the militants once used prohibited chemical weapon, which resulted in the hospitalization of two servicemen.

Will chemical weapon be used?

According to the available information, the terrorists’ leaders are getting ready to carry out chemical provocations on the eve of an offensive operation. With the aid of European specialists arrived via Turkey, the jihadists have set up chemical weapons depots at 30 towns near Idlib de-escalation area.

It may be indirectly confirmed by the fact that White Helmets are causing a stir around Idlib. Civil defenders have intensified their activity in Idlib lately. They have appeared in the town of Maarat al-Nouman right after it has been captured by HTS, the residents report. Moreover, several hospitals already host equipment the White Helmets have prepared for staged shooting of a chemical attack allegedly conducted by Damascus.

Operational coordination of Islamists

Under the leadership of HTS, a joint command and control organization, the so-called Military Council was created. This body is an operational headquarters with all groups involved, including such former opposition forces as the 1st Coastal Division, Jaysh al-Izza, Suqour al-Sham and a few others.

Down to Aleppo, Hama and Latakia, the terrorists are forming offensive groups, armed with artillery and tanks. HTS is regularly recruiting mercenaries, training them and guiding their operational coordination. The forced mobilization is conducted among the youth aged 15 to 22. All this is happening in front of Turkish soldiers’ eyes while they do absolutely nothing to prevent destabilization. Thus, the whole idea of a demilitarization zone and diplomatic settlement of the situation in Idlib has been compromised.

Besides, the first Islamic private military contractor (PMC), called Malhama Tactical, has intensified its activity, which foremost consists of training of jihadists from different groups located on the HTS-held territory. Hayat Tahrir al-Sham itself funds the training. Mercenaries are in charge of forming militants, from machine gunners to snipers.

Allegedly one of the PMC chiefs

At the same time, the Malhama Tactical leadership has been caught in crowdfunding through social networks and in supporting jihadists. To get further on Malhama Tactical activity, read the article at Foreign Policy.

And what is Turkey’s role?

It would be nonsense to say that Ankara has no accurate information to implement the agreements on Idlib for some groups remain under Turkey’s control.
Ankara is still active in the northern part of Syria, where it conducts surveillance and aerial survey by drones above the Idlib province.

Turkish drone over Idlib province

Turkey has its strategy on the situation in the de-escalation zone of Idlib hardly complying with the Memorandum.

Former U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for the Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State Brett McGurk said, Ankara was supporting many opposition groups and creating friendly conditions for them. He considered the province of Idlib as a zone of Turkey’s influence where groups affiliated with al-Qaida prevail. According to McGurk, all the guarding points on the border are controlled by al-Qaida, which is a serious aggravating issue in the settlement process in Idlib.

Is there a possibility of a military operation in Idlib?

Turkey is supposed to respect the Sochi agreement but it can’t due to the largest part of Idlib being held by HTS. The scenario of bargaining, like it was in the case of the Afrin deal, may be advantageous for Ankara. In exchange of an operation against Kurds of Rojava, Turkey is ready to accept not to interfere with the SAA units while it will clean up Idlib.

The possible scenario is a joint operation, during which pro-Turkish groups would move from the north and the border while Syrian-Iranian troops would start from the positions alongside the de-escalation zone.

In any case, Turkey is fully responsible for undermining the joint Memorandum. Moreover, the current situation demonstrates Turkey’s negligence to guarantee the withdrawal of heavy weapons and radical jihadist groups from Idlib. And while the Turkish leader is turning a blind eye to what is going on in the province of Idlib things are getting only worse.


If you enjoy OffG's content, please help us make our monthly fund-raising goal and keep the site alive.

For other ways to donate, including direct-transfer bank details click HERE.

0 0 votes
Article Rating
Notify of

oldest most voted
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
Feb 23, 2019 9:04 PM

I think we must see the strategic developments in a bigger frame – thus including even India and Pakistan. For this please read Bhadrakumar’s excellent article “The geopolitics of Pulwama” – https://indianpunchline.com/the-geopolitics-of-pulwama/

This stupid Indian political class (which Bhadrakumar rightfully flagellates whenever he can) will have no other choice but to approach the People’s Republic of China (a humiliation for this class!). Thus forming a block of Russia-China-Iran-India. And, yes, also Syria. And, yes, also Turkey (+ Qatar).

I am sure that Erdogan, whom I believe to be no more intelligent than Trump (yes, an insult – but I stand to it) in this moment doesn’t even have a clue that Turkey will have to move to that future Russia-China-Iran-India-BLOCK.

This move is inevitable because:
1) The antagonism with Saudi Arabia: Which country is the real motherland of Islam. and also the fight of Wahabites/Salafists (Saudis) vs. the Muslim Brothers (Erdogan)
2) The Regime in Washington still follows the Yinon-Plan. This is to reshape a lot of countries and even set up totally new states. Here a picture of that plan: http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/images/lewispln.jpg .

Stupid Erdogan attacked Syria some years ago. Why did he do this?
One: Because of his pubertal-little-boy’s dream of a new “Ottoman-Empire”. Two: Because Erdogan is a hateful-fanatic Muslim-Brother: He couldn’t bear a Secular State in Syria. Here it is his pubertal-religious dream of an Islamic Khalifat (of the Muslim-Brother’s kind, of course), that can not accept a secular state, which tolerates that citizens have different religious beliefs – or even no belief.
Erdogan should have never attacked Syria! With this Erdogan has endangered the future of Turkey even more than all of those Turkish Juntas before. Kemal Attaturk wouldn’t believe what we see today.

I predict: Turkey will have to leave NATO. Stupid Erdogan manoeuvred Turkey – totally unnecessarily – into this position!
I suspect (not “predict”): This is why US-Israel will start another (Turkish-military) coup against Erdogan. And stupid-puberty Erdogan made a lot of enemies in Turkey!
And although I despise Erdogan, I hope this future coup against him will not succeed.
I believe that hopefully, in at least about half a year, Erdogan will also finally understand what Bhadrakumar’s article means for Turkey. I doubt that Erdogan understands this today!

Feb 23, 2019 8:18 PM

The treachery to Russia and Iran and Syrian citizens by Erdogan is in the proof he has gone to the USA to consult with them over Idlib..he has done virtually nothing except pontificate in his usual loud manner and tacitly support HTS trying to give them some credence…..but they are playing him against himself..disastrous….I have no idea why Iran and Putin cannot put their foot down….Iran seems to be saying they are determined to stay in Sirya to remove terrorists…..maybe they will head to Idlib with SAA…thanks for article.

Feb 23, 2019 6:30 PM

From SyrianPerspective:

Canthama #287521
Evgeniy Poddubny is a well known Russian military reporter who has spent years covering the war of aggression against the Syrians. He has a TV show, called War, at the Rossiya24 channel. In the video below he covers a US NGO seminar on “starting a color revolution” in the city of Yerevan, Armenia; and an excellent interview with Alexander Kots who recently returned from Caracas. The interview is priceless, excellent unbiased coverage of what is up in Venezuela, a must watch if you have 17 minutes to spare, worth the time.

Mike-Florida #287520
“Islamic State (CIS) group’s last holdout of Baghouz. In past few weeks, 20,000 people had left Baghouz through the humanitarian corridor, leaving the IS holdout on foot, but the militants then closed the passage and no civilians left for a week until Wednesday, when a large group was evacuated. The last remaining fighters and civilians are pictured.” (Video, plus many good pictures of this op – however, no mention of exact destination of these people.).

[Vexarb adds re “final destination of these people”: read Mark below on Sweden’s 200,000 rapefugees and Germany’s 1,500.000 gimmegrants; CIA terrorists shoehorned in ahead of genuine refugees and immigrants by billion pound White Helmet MI6 PR money from St.Theresa’s regime at Westminster (among many other criminal regimes in the EU$A.]

Feb 23, 2019 2:07 PM

There is a very delicate end game going on between two sides: on the winning side, chessmasters Putin and Assad with strong backing from bishop Nasr’Allah, castle Rouhani and active footsoldier pawns who have practically cleared the board and pushed the opposition onto its back line. Opposition team has only one player, Erdogan, who understands political chess; its other players are our raving imbecile Leaders from the rest of NATZO. Winning side is militarily stronger on the ground; but what makes the endgame tricky is whether firm reasonableness can calm NATZO’s raving lunatic Leaders before they call in outside forces to unleash The Samson Option: a type of Gotterdaemering in which everyone dies and the resultant fire burns up Heaven itself. Fortunately both President Putin and medical Dr.Assad have an excellent track record of firm reasonableness.

“How the POTUS plays chess; like a pigeon: pecks around knocking over the pieces, shits all over the board then declares victory and flies away — to repeat the performance somewhere else.” — Attributed to President Putin after the matches with President Obumbler in Syria and Ukraine.

Feb 23, 2019 5:36 AM

The Institute for the Middle East (Russia) in its weekly report on the situation in the Middle East region reported the following (report for February 4 – 10, 2019):

The demilitarized zone, the creation of which in Syria was agreed by the leaders of Russia and Turkey in Sochi in September 2018, has not yet begun to function. Russia calls on Turkey to speed up the fulfillment of its promises as much as possible, Deputy Foreign Minister of Russia S. Vershinin said on February 8. The Russian Foreign Ministry confirmed that terrorists are continuing preparations for large-scale military provocations in the province of Idlib. It is reported that the Qatar Fund for Development has allocated $ 2 million to finance the activities of the Syrian non-governmental organization White Helmets, known for its provocative actions. This was done on the instructions of Emir T. Al Tani.

It is obvious that Turkey is not the only party that has its own interest in Idlib. Qatar is known as a sponsor of ISIS. Qatar’s financing of the White Helmets activities in Idlib may be a sign that there is some “coherence of actions” between Qatar and Turkey (albeit temporary, but still). However, it is only an assumption.

In my opinion, most likely a military operation to clean Idlib in one form or another will take place.
This situation can not last forever. At a meeting on February 14, V.Putin reaffirmed that “the creation of an Idlib de-escalation zone is a temporary measure“. Well, if this is only a temporary measure, then sooner or later its time will end.
The Russian side is definitely not going to put up with the presence of a center of terrorist activity near the Khmeimim airbase.

If a military operation occurs, it is most likely not earlier than late spring or even summer.
The United States and Russia must first deal with the situation in Ukraine. I mean the presidential election, which will be held on the last day of March. Moreover, it should be borne in mind that most likely the presidential elections in Ukraine will be held in two rounds. That means more time – until April or May. I don’t think that Russia will begin to undertake any serious activity in Syria before this date.

For his part, Erdogan has certain levers of pressure on Moscow. The purchase of the S-400 is not yet completed. It can be canceled at any time. If Moscow presses Erdogan too hard, he may hint at the cancellation of the deal. By the way, earlier Turkey had already acted in this way with China, at the last moment refusing to buy Chinese long-range anti-aircraft systems.

At first glance unimportant (and even unexpected), but still significant moment – the church issue in Ukraine.
Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople, who started a church schism in Ukraine, is a person under the control of the Turkish government. This is not a figurative expression, but a feature of the Turkish political system. The head of the Patriarch of Constantinople is a Turkish official. He is accountable to the Office of Religious Affairs of Turkey. Besides, Bartholomew is a former captain of the Turkish army.

By “encouraging” the activities of Bartholomew in Ukraine (the weakening of the canonical Ukrainian Orthodox Church, which is the “territory” of the Russian Orthodox Church), Turkey can thus cause damage to the interests of Moscow.

So Erdogan definitely has the means of bargaining with Moscow. After all, I don’t think that Erdogan forgot and forgave Moscow the fact of the destruction of illegal oil supplies from Syria to Turkey (remember the famous photos shown by V.Putin, on which endlessly long columns of trucks with black gold are moving towards Turkey). The Turkish leader can smile at you, but keep a knife behind his back. Downed Russian aircraft – the best proof of this.

Feb 23, 2019 10:44 AM
Reply to  alaffcreator

Not to mention that Erdogan also holds both sides of the Dardanelles and the Bosporus, the double door to the Black sea.
The Russians remember the Crimean war and the Congress of Paris (1856) where GB and France joined the Ottomans against (Christian!) Russia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_of_Paris_(1856)
Not too much has changed: maybe a Brexit & the gilets jaunes can break this long, weird alliance finally.

Feb 23, 2019 3:58 PM
Reply to  alaffcreator

All the terrorist sponsors of the cannibal headchoppers, FUKUS-France/UK/US, Zionist Regime, Turkey, Shady Wahabia, Qatar, Gulf Dictatorships, have lost out big time.
They have thrown the kitchen sink at Syria and failed.
Syria is the Stalingrad that finally broke the AngloZionist Empire.
There is still a long way to go before it finally collapses, but like Stalingrad, the final outcome is inevitable.
Nobody has totted up the final bill, but it is in the many tens of billions at least.
Qatar did just one arms deal with Croatia that cost $5 billion.
Shady Wahabia was buying 100 tanks at a time from the Ukies for the throatslitters.
Britain financed the jihadi terror under the guise of “humanitarian aid” to the tune of well over £3 billion. That 150 strong White Helmet PR Department and all the fake gas attack videos don’t come cheap. So much better than squandering the money on the NHS.
All those jihadi holiday camps on the Golan Heights cost plenty of shekels as well, though the UK didn’t pick up the bill for those in the end as the Zionist MPs wanted..
Like the rest of the bogus 20 year long $7 trillion plus bogus war on terror.
They flooded the country with hundreds of thousands of takfiri headchoppers from 100 countries. Most of this neocon cannon fodder has been eliminated and gone to headchopper heaven to claim their six dozen virgins. But there are thousands left to drift back whence they came with their own inimitable brand of murder and mayhem.
Jordan and Turkey have been flooded with refugees. Turkey has been impoverished and destabilised and drifted into dictatorship and drifted out of NATO. Germany was on the receiving end of over 1.5 million completely unassimilable rapefugees and gimmegrants in 2015 alone, Sweden 200,000, with plenty more where they came from. Destabilising the EU and putting the final nails in its coffin. Destabilising the delightful people in Shady Wahabia. Bringing Iran and Hezbollah on to the Zionists’ doorstep.
Didn’t quite turn out according to the Power Point presentation.
Don’t you just love it when a plan comes together?

Tim Jenkins
Tim Jenkins
Feb 23, 2019 6:33 PM
Reply to  mark

@mark: When you put it like that, it sounds like the ‘A’ (4 Ashkenazi) Team did their planning in WTC 7 & power point presentation in The Twin Faulty Towers . . . 🙂

I see the mighty ant. is trying to sound credible for once, so i’ll give him a day off to dwell on the futility of his energy return on energy invested :), before his last charge of the lightweight senseless & brain dead brigade, into the valley of death,
in Crimea. As if Putin would allow Erdogan to dictate anything 😉

On a serious note, i thought the above article was a pretty fair & brave effort at credible journalism, from someone on the ground & grounded, for once: a ‘pleasure’ to read & feel more informed, in relative real time, of the tragic daily reality & struggles for survival, after so many external forces applied, seeking to destroy Syria and maintain their NATZO positions on the Golan; to at least keep on keeping on thieving Syrian Resources daily, namely all that oil & gas for Genies with no ‘bottle’, like Murdoch, Cheney, Rothschild & Woolsey, with AIPAC CIA approval, which could have helped fund so much, but for whom ? FUKUS !

Your analogy of The ‘Stalingrad of Weltanschauungskrieg’, certainly works for me, sadly . . .
Of course, one is tempted to insert Ashkenazi Corporatist, in that analogy: do feel free 😉

Long live the smallholding of integrity.

Wishing you a peaceful evening, sincerely
Warm regards,

P.s. ‘alaffcreator’ seems to have twisted & blended history a little above & beyond the calls and tendered some weaker minded souls. See what you think, as I have something alternative & more complex drafted already. My take & understanding is along the lines that Erdogan will do pretty much precisely what Xi & Putin tell him to do, at least in the end … for a wide variety of strategic, technological, logistical & financial reasons, going forward, post economic seizures & heart attacks, pending. Your valued eyes wide open opinion could be useful, on this one: coz’ the trolling has been putting well below par, recently 😉

Feb 23, 2019 10:56 PM
Reply to  Tim Jenkins

I think Erdogan was shaken by: the escalating terrorism, with 100+ killed at a time; the financial cost, with billions lost from Russian tourist sanctions alone; the general out of control violence and instability spilling over into Turkey, with 3 million refugees; the obvious failure of the Syrian Regime Change Project; and not least, the failed US coup attempt against him.

Erdogan had to move to Plan B, some measure of cooperation with Russia and Iran, for his own survival. It goes without saying that he can’t be trusted, but Putin is well aware of that.